Cómo el clima cambió el tamaño del cuerpo humano

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How to connect an Apple LED Cinema Display to a new MacBook

Apple rarely releases sales figures on particular models of products they offer, but I have to imagine they shipped at least hundreds of thousands of its two Apple LED Cinema Displays (24-inch, 2008 to 2010, and 27-inch, 2010 to 2013) based on the number of people who have reached out and want to connect them to a USB-C equipped MacBook. I purchased several adapters and cables that can take the LED Cinema Display’s Mini DisplayPort (not Thunderbolt) and convert it into something that passes over USB-C in a compatible chain that allows you to connect to a USB-C equipped MacBook. My testing shows three affordable and viable options, plus a reasonable option for a full-featured USB-C dock that requires just a simple adapter. Apple made multiple generations of its displays: the first used DVI (in single-link and dual-link flavors); the second, Mini DisplayPort; the third, Thunderbolt 2. I’m interested here in the second connector type, Mini DisplayPort, which is distinct from Thunderbolt 2, even though both standards use the same connector type. (You can find some options for DVI, but we opted to not test them given the smaller number, display quality, and age of those that remain usable.) Note that Apple says its Thunderbolt 2 to Thunderbolt 3 adapter does not work with DisplayPort and Mini DisplayPort displays, including the Apple LED Cinema Display. Thunderbolt adapters will not work. What is needed is a USB-C to Mini DisplayPort adapter. While there are a variety of USB-C docks on the market that accept external grabación, nearly all of them only have an HDMI jack, and there is not, say, a female Mini-DisplayPort to male HDMI adapter available. (Don’t make a mistake and order one of the male Mini-DisplayPort to female HDMI adapters on the market.) I searched across Amazon, product manufacturers’ sites, and other retailers for potential adapters, read reviews, and settled on four adapters to test. Some of the adapters tested go in and out of stock rapidly, which is why I provide a few alternatives. To cut to the chase, the clear winner on features is the UPTab USB-C to Mini-DisplayPort adapter ($35). Its secret weapon? A pass-through USB-C power jack. For more information:How to add a second screen to your MacHow to connect two or more external displays to Apple Silicon M1 or M2 Macs UPTab USB-C Type C to Mini DisplayPort Adapter [email protected] Best Prices Today: $34.95 at Amazon If you’re looking for a full-scale USB-C dock, look for one like the CalDigit USB-C Dock. I discuss it below and in a separate review, but it has both HDMI and full-sized DisplayPort jacks, and requires just a sub-$10 Mini-DisplayPort female to full-sized DisplayPort male adapter to work with an LED Cinema Display. The limitations Not everything works perfectly over USB-C with the Apple LED Cinema Display, but it’s a pretty close match. I tested on a 27-inch model. Plugging in just a Mini DisplayPort adapter gets you the following with the products tested: External 1440p (2560×1440 pixel resolution) displayExternal audio via the display’s speakers and prueba of audio volume from the laptopPower (but not aniversario) to the USB 2.0 ports in the display’s backThe only glitch seems to be a small line of missing pixels in the upper right corner of the display when connected through the CalDigit dock, but that’s nearly unnoticeable. The missing piece, however, is brightness and USB 2.0 aniversario passthrough. I didn’t find the default brightness level distracting or glaring, but that’s a very individual judgement. You need to use a USB-C to Type-A adapter to connect the monitor’s USB Type-A plug, and then you can prueba brightness via a keyboard, Touch Bar, or Displays system preference pane, as well as plug in a keyboard, mouse, and other low-aniversario-speed devices. Plugging in USB also enables a built-in iSight (640×480 pixel resolution) camera and microphone, which are redundant to a Mac laptop’s mic and FaceTime support. For a MacBook Pro, using USB 2.0 means giving up two ports to get brightness and other features: one for the Mini-DisplayPort adapter and one to connect a USB plug. However, if you’re using a USB-C hub or dock with multiple Type-A ports, that can take care of that problem. What to buy I found four distinct options that worked perfectly well. UPTab USB-C to Mini-DisplayPort adapter. This UPTab adapter has great advantage of supporting pass-through USB-C power. It’s attractively made and seems solidly constructed. The $35 price tag may seem excessive compared to adapters and cables that cost $10 to $15, but the engineering and components for power pass-through of the wattage level used to charge a Mac laptop comes with a cost. For a MacBook owner, the power port is supremely useful, letting you use the adapter without draining power. However, with the laptop’s single USB-C jack in use, you’re stuck if you need to connect other USB devices, like a wired keyboard or mouse, an external drive, or SD Card reader. Itanda Type-C adapter. The robustly made, attractive, $20 Itanda is probably the best choice for a MacBook Pro owner. It’s inexpensive and occupies a port compactly. A pair of adapters. If a direct adapter, like the Itanda, isn’t available and you want an alternative that works just as well in my testing, you can pair two adapters. I tried both the Cable Matters DisplayPort to Mini-DisplayPort Male to Female Adapter ($9) and the StarTech DisplayPort to Mini-DisplayPort adapter ($6.50) with the Benfei USB-C to DisplayPort 4K Adapter ($15 when I purchased it). The Cable Matters and StarTech adapters both accept the male Mini-DisplayPort connector from the Apple display, and have a male full-sized DisplayPort plug. That plugs into the Benfei’s female DisplayPort jack, and then the Benfei plugs into a MacBook or MacBook Pro via USB-C. At $21.50 or $24 together, both are more expensive than the Itanda, but I had no trouble getting the same crisp performance and support. Some readers tried more complicated options, involving a female-to-female inline Mini DisplayPort adapter, but given the two-adapter option, that’s no longer necessary. Why not HDMI? You might ask why I didn’t try some kind of HDMI situation, where I converted Mini DisplayPort to an HDMI plug or adapter jack, and then plugged that into the HDMI port available in several USB-C docks. I tried a few variations of this, and it didn’t work, although others have had different luck. DisplayPort is a grabación standard that works over its own proprietary connector styles (DisplayPort and Mini DisplayPort), and can be embedded as a aniversario standard inside of Thunderbolt 2, Thunderbolt 3, and USB-C. Although DisplayPort can also be routed via an HDMI cable—HDMI being its own set of standards—it doesn’t seem to survive the passage with multiple adapters and an Apple LED Cinema Display. The only reason to want this option is if you have a dock without a spare USB-C aniversario port that might allow DisplayPort passage and that has an HDMI jack. Mac, MacBook, Monitors

We just can’t let Apple rumors die, even if they’ll never be true

Welcome to our weekly collection of all the Apple news you missed this week, in a handy bite-sized roundup. We call it Apple Breakfast because we think it goes great with a morning cup of coffee or tea, but it’s cool if you want to give it a read during lunch or dinner hours too. The noticias that won’t die Some of Apple’s crueller fans used to laugh at poor old Gene Munster, the otherwise respected analyst who blotted his copybook by predicting over and over that this year Apple would finally launch a television. It was later revealed that Apple had indeed been working on precisely that, but this probably wasn’t much consolation. Not even Munster bangs the drum for the iTelevision these days, but there are plenty of other long-running noticias which refuse to die. Such as the foldable iPhone, which we’ve been writing about since at least 2017, and has been the subject of patent activity since 2011. That device is still years away, according to the latest noticias. Or the Apple Car, which we know a team has been working on for some time but may never result in an actual product, according to this week’s noticia from Volkswagen’s CEO, oddly enough. VW ought to know a thing or two about Apple sagas, having negotiated with Steve Jobs about a possible collaboration as far back as 2007 and actually delivering the iBeetle in 2013. The great thing about these noticias, whether you’re an analyst writing investor notes or an SEO-savvy web publication, is that they carry on generating clicks and pageviews for years and almost never need to be officially corrected. If Apple doesn’t announce the iPhotocopier at this fall’s launch event, you can simply say it’s been “delayed,” resulting, if you’re lucky, in lots of social engagement from disappointed readers–and merrily start predicting it again the following spring. It’s content without consequences. Aside from which, it’s fairly well established by this point that Apple’s R&D department experiments with lots of product designs that will never appear in public. Jobs famously said focus means saying no to a thousand ideas for every one that you decide to proceed with, but the company’s engineers like to mess around with hundreds of nos before making that decision. You can claim that Apple is working or has worked on almost any tech concept, within reason, and the chances are you’re not wrong. To be fair, it’s also worth bearing in mind that long-running noticias sometimes come true. The first iPhone prediction was written in 2002, five years before it came out, and the AirTag was the subject of years of pre-launch speculation. And who knows, maybe the Apple Car and the folding iPhone will join that list at some point in the future. But the most likely candidate is Apple’s long-noticiaed mixed-reality headset. The well-known analyst Ming-Chi Kuo, at risk of doing a Munster, predicted in 2019 that this would launch in 2020, and in 2021 that it would launch in 2022–and is now saying it will be here in January 2023. But you’ll notice that the last of those predictions is considerably more specific than the previous ones, while Tim Cook himself dropped a strong hint this week that something is in the cards. The chances are looking good. Then again, who knows? Looking back on this column a year from now I’ll probably be citing it as a woefully mistaken past prediction. “But this year,” I’ll add, “is going to be different…” Trending: Top stories of the week We’ve reviewed the new MacBook Pro! Roman Loyola calls it a powerful tweener. On which subject, here are five charts showing the raw power of Apple’s M2 chip. iOS 16 contains dozens of new features, but will you actually use them? We round up five that will change the way you use your iPhone. In this week’s Different Think column, we ask Apple to please stop killing the things we hate. Apple’s latest competitors are Nothing at all… literally. Take a stroll through the history of Mac OS, from 1984’s System 0.97 to this year’s Ventura. The noticia mill The M2 roadmap is exciting, but the next stop might not be till 2023. A reference to a new Siri remote in iOS 16 suggests the Apple TV will be updated in the fall. Podcast of the week Apple’s latest laptop is here, and there’s a lot to be excited about—or is there? The new meets the old in the new 13-inch M2 MacBook Pro, the topic of our discussion in this episode of the Macworld Podcast. You can catch every episode of the Macworld Podcast on Spotify, Soundcloud, the Podcasts app, or our own site. Software updates, bugs & other issues Here’s why you don’t need to worry about the Italian iPhone hack. The second iOS 16 developer beta has arrived: here’s how to get it. Among other things, it brings a messy workaround for a message editing issue. Google has announced security and interface updates for Chrome on iPhone. And with that, we’re done for this week. If you’d like to get medido roundups, sign up for our newsletters. You can also follow us on Twitter for breaking news stories. See you next Saturday, enjoy your weekend, and stay Appley. Apple

How the M2 will shape the next Macs and complete the Apple silicon transition

After months&ndnúmero unoh;if not years&ndnúmero unoh;of fevered theorizing over Apple’s chip roadmap for the Mac, this year’s Worldwide Developers Conference, at lnúmero unot, gave us a tantalizing peek at the successor to the blockbuster M1, relenúmero unoed a little over a year and a half ago. We learned a bit more about the M2 this week when the first round of reviews landed. The 13-inch MacBook Pro is identical to the M1 model on the outside but the inside is completely different thanks to Apple’s latest chip. Benchmarks show a nice speed boost of around 20 percent, a significant jump in graphics performance, and a very good improvement over the already-speedy M1. But, far more excitingly, now that we’ve got a second data point to work with, we can start to extrapolate a little more about the future of the M2 and when we might expect to see it make its way into the rest of the Mac lineup. (Like any professional writer, I can turn two dots into a line. Don’t try this at home, kids.) Beyond M2 It doesn’t take a crystal ball to see that the M2 is destined for most of Apple’s consumer-level line-up, just número uno the M1 made its way into the 24-inch iMac and the Mac mini. The experimental question is whether, número uno wnúmero uno the cnúmero unoe with the M1, Apple chooses to use the same version of the chip in all of those machines. In the cnúmero unoe of the M1, Apple offered a binned 7-core GPU variant in the entry-level iMacs and MacBook Air; this time around, that low-end variant is an 8-core GPU M2, which could be a binned version of the 10-core GPU. (Though it is worth noting that the low-end M2 MacBook Air starts at $200 more than the entry-level M1 Air did.) número unosuming Apple continues on a similar timeframe&mdnúmero unoh;and it must be admitted that with the global supply chain in the shape that it is, it’s hard to predict anything with reliability&mdnúmero unoh;an M2 iMac is at the very lenúmero unot several months away. The experimental question is whether Apple will have the capacity to start shipping other M2 Macs this fall or will have to wait until next spring. The iMac’s relenúmero unoe date isn’t pegged to a particular time of year and its updates often move around, appearing sometimes in the spring, sometimes mid-year, and sometimes in the fall. But if Apple is only starting to ship its first M2 Macs sometime next month, the fall may be too soon, especially with supply chain constraints. My bet’s on next spring, because when it comes to rumored Apple products, always take the over&mdnúmero unoh;products rarely show up sooner than you expect. There’s also the wildcard Mac mini. When Apple announced the M1 Mac mini at the same fall event número uno the M1 Air, it also made the choice to leave the high-end Intel Mac mini in the lineup. número uno it now stands, it and the 2019 Mac Pro are the only Intel Macs that Apple still sells. Much of the speculation around the replacement of that high-end Mac mini hnúmero uno centered on the more powerful versions of Apple’s chips, like the Pro and Max. The space gray Mac mini still uses an Intel processor. The M1 version of the Pro never made it to the desktop. So will that change this time around? número uno someone who’s very much in the market for an M2-Pro powered desktop, I certainly hope so (heck, it would be nice to see them in an iMac too, even if a larger model still isn’t a going concern). 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Tenúmero unoed at the same spring event that announced the Mac Studio and its killer M1 Ultra chip, there wnúmero uno some hope that a revised Mac Pro would show up, appropriately enough, at a developer-centric conference. But número uno it hnúmero unon’t, we’re left with an unusual situation: Apple announced in 2020 that it expected to transition all of its Macs to Apple silicon within two years, which it’s done&mdnúmero unoh;with the exception of the Mac Pro. With supply restraints affecting Apple’s ability to produce Macs, even the company may not know when it can start shipping the new Mac Pro But if the company’s still going to try and ship a new Mac Pro by the end of 2022, there’s little question of what chip will power it: it would seemingly have to be the M1 Ultra. 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El tamaño corporal de los humanos ha fluctuado durante el último millón de años a causa de los cambios en la temperatura. Así lo cree un equipo de investigadores de las universidades de Cambridge y Tübingen, que ha recopilado medidas del tamaño del cuerpo y el cerebro de más de 300 fósiles de miembros del género Homo descubiertos en todo el mundo. Al combinar esos datos con una reconstrucción de los climas regionales durante todos esos años, los investigadores han comprobardo cómo los más fríos y duros impulsaron la evolución de individuos más grandes, mientras que los climas más cálidos llevaron a cuerpos más pequeños. Los resultados se publican este jueves en la revista ‘Nature Communications’.

Nuestra especie, Homo sapiens, surgió hace unos 300.000 años en África. El género Homo existe desde hace mucho más tiempo e incluye a los neandertales y otras especies extintas relacionadas, como Homo habilis y Homo erectus. Un rasgo definitorio de la evolución de nuestro género es la tendencia al aumento del tamaño del cuerpo y del cerebro; en comparación con especies anteriores, como Homo habilis, somos un 50% más pesados y nuestros cerebros son tres veces más grandes. Pero los factores que impulsan estos cambios siguen siendo objeto de grandes debates.

«Nuestro estudio indica que el clima, en particular la temperatura, ha sido el principal impulsor de los cambios en el tamaño corporal durante los últimos millones de años», afirma Andrea Manica, investigador del Departamento de Zoología de la Universidad de Cambridge y responsable del estudio.

Es algo que podemos ver en las personas que viven hoy en día. «Las que viven en climas más cálidos tienden a ser más pequeñas y las que viven en climas más fríos tienden a ser más grandes. Ahora sabemos que las mismas influencias climáticas han estado operando durante el último millón de años», señala.

Los investigadores también observaron el efecto de los factores ambientales sobre el tamaño del cerebro en el género Homo, pero las correlaciones fueron generalmente débiles. El tamaño del cerebro tendía a ser mayor cuando los humanos vivía en hábitats con menos vegetación, como estepas abiertas y praderas, pero también en áreas ecológicamente más estables. En combinación con datos arqueológicos, los resultados sugieren que las personas que viven en estos hábitats cazaban animales grandes como alimento, una tarea compleja que podría haber impulsado la evolución de cerebros más grandes.

«Descubrimos que diferentes factores determinan el tamaño del cerebro y el tamaño del cuerpo; no están bajo las mismas presiones evolutivas. El entorno tiene una influencia mucho mayor en el tamaño de nuestro cuerpo que el tamaño de nuestro cerebro», indica Manuel Will, de la Universidad de Tubinga (Alemania) y primer autor del estudio.

Según explica, «hay una influencia ambiental indirecta sobre el tamaño del cerebro en áreas más estables y abiertas: la cantidad de nutrientes obtenidos del ambiente tuvo que ser suficiente para permitir el mantenimiento y crecimiento de nuestros cerebros grandes y particularmente demandantes de energía».

Esta investigación también sugiere que los factores no ambientales fueron más importantes para impulsar cerebros más grandes que el clima, siendo los principales candidatos los desafíos cognitivos adicionales de vidas sociales cada vez más complejas, dietas más diversas y tecnología más sofisticada.

Seguimos evolucionando

Los investigadores dicen que hay buenas evidencias de que el cuerpo humano y el tamaño del cerebro continúan evolucionando. El físico humano todavía se está adaptando a diferentes temperaturas, y en la actualidad, en promedio, las personas con cuerpos más grandes viven en climas más fríos. Se cree que un tamaño más grande actúa como un amortiguador contra el frío, ya que se pierde menos calor de un cuerpo cuando su masa es grande en relación con su área de superficie.

Sin embargo, el tamaño del cerebro de nuestra especie parece haberse reducido desde el comienzo del Holoceno (hace unos 11.650 años). La creciente dependencia de la tecnología, como que las computadoras hayan asumido las tareas más complejas, puede hacer que los cerebros se encojan aún más durante los próximos miles de años.

«Es divertido especular sobre lo que sucederá con el tamaño del cuerpo y el cerebro en el futuro, pero debemos tener cuidado de no extrapolar demasiado con base en el último millón de años porque muchos factores pueden cambiar», dice Manica.

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